The trading behavior of a strategy is determined by bars or by ticks - in most cases by both. A bar is usually a fixed time period, like one minute or one day. In the chart below, of the EUR/USD price curve in summer 2009, every bar is displayed with a red or green candle. The horizontal width of the candle is the bar period (in the chart below, one day), and its vertical height is the price movement of the asset during that period. On green candles the price went up during the bar period; on red candles it went down. By default, Zorro displays up and down candles in white and black colors. The thin lines above and below the candles - the 'wicks' - represent the highest and the lowest price during the bar period.
For example, when you look at the candle of June 1 (at the vertical line below marked Jun), you see that the day started at a price of 1.4125. During the day the price went as high as 1.4225, and as low as 1.4110. The day ended with the price at 1.4135.
In past times, a bar was really equal to a day. The closing price was the price of the asset in the afternoon when the market closed, and the opening price was the first price next morning at 9:30 after the traders had contemplated their strategies all night. In modern times, many assets are traded online 24 hours a day, and some, such as digital coins, even at weekends and holidays. Due to the trading around the clock, you can see that in the above chart the closing price of one bar is almost identical with the opening price of the next bar. This is different when an asset is traded at a single stock exchange and has little or no trading volume outside its business hours. In that case, daily candles can have a gap between the close of a bar and the open of the next bar.
It is sometimes confusing to beginners that the same price curve can look very different on other trading platforms and charting programs - especially with forex pairs or CFDs that are traded around the clock. The open, high, low, and close price of any candle depends on the time zone of the charting software and of the open/close time of the bars. The EUR/USD chart above is based on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT, UTC). The same chart in New York local time (EST) had very different candles. By Zorro convention, charts and logs are always in UTC time, and the time stamp of any bar or tick is the current time at bar completion. Thus, a 12:00 bar ends at 12:00 UTC. Some trading platforms use the same convention, some others stamp the bar with the time from its begin or middle, some use local time or EST time. Be aware of that when comparing logs or charts of different platforms.
Trading can be based on ticks, bar periods, and time frames. The main strategy runs at any bar, but it can also have a tick function that runs at any incoming tick. In live trading, a tick is the arrival of a new price quote; in the backtest, a tick is a single record in a historical price data file. Any tick got a timestamp from the exchange or broker where it originated. Any bar contains all ticks whose timestamps fall into the bar period. When one bar ends, the next bar starts. There is no 'gap' between bars. A 1-hour bar ending at 12:00 contains all ticks with timestamps greater than 11:00:00 and less or equal to 12:00:00. A tick with the timestamp 12.00:00.001 already belongs to the 13:00 bar, even though it displays in a history editor as 12:00:00. Timestamps have an internal precision of 0.5 ms.
Since ticks arrive rarely or not at all during weekends or holidays, and since Zorro allows bar periods down to a millisecond for HFT simulation, a bar period can be shorter than the time between two subsequent ticks. The bar is then normally extended by a multiple of the bar period until it contains at least one tick. Bars are also extended for skipping weekends, holidays, or market closure. This behavior can be set up with BarMode flags.
A time frame can cover several bars, and is normally used as a time basis for technical indicators and price series. For instance, TimeFrame = 4 merges 4 bars to a single time frame, and TimeFrame = framesync(24) merges a varying number of 1-hour bars to a full day. Bars be be merged by any criteria or condition set up in the script, allowing time frames to be synchronized to certain hours or other events. A strategy has only one bar period, but can have any number of different time frames. Indicators are normally based on time frames.
The candle associated to a bar gets its open price from the first tick of the bar, its close price from its last tick, and its high and low from the highest and lowest price inbetween. In charts a candle is usually printed centered about the timestamp of its bar, not in front of it as would be correct. And indicators are usually printed with smooth lines, not with discrete steps at any candle as would be correct. Therefore, in charts the begin and end of candles and the crossings of indicators are normally slightly off (by about half a bar). This can also be confusing to beginners. For getting the true time of the bars or indicator crossings, don't use a magnifying glass on the chart, but look in the backtest log.
Since many assets are traded in sessions and have no or infrequent price quotes outside their market hours, it is normally desired to merge out-of-market bars to a single bar. For this the time frame mechanism can be used. Alternatively, time series can ignore out-of-market bars when they are defined as static (using a negative length) and only shifted and filled during market hours.
Some traders believe that they get a better insight into the market with bars that cover not a fixed time period, but a fixed price movement. With a focus on price movement, long periods of consolidation are condensed into just a few bars, thus highlighting "real" price trends. There are many special bar types: Tick Bars, Renko Bars, Range Bars, Momentum Bars, Point-and-Figure Bars, or Haiken Ashi Bars. Zorro allows any imaginable combination of price and time for constructing user-defined bars with the bar function.
Strategy development involves testing the strategy with historical price data. The prices are read from files in Zorro's History folder. For keeping the files at a reasonable size, they normally do not contain all the price quotes, but only one-minute candles (M1 data) or daily candles (D1 data). Files containing no cancles, but direct price quotes (T1 data), can also be used for special purposes, like testing scalping or HFT strategies.
Historical M1 data for main currencies, indices, and commodities is available on the Zorro Download Page. Data that is not found there can be downloaded (usually free) from brokers or from Internet data providers (Google™, Quandl™, etc.). Data in high resolution or with special content - for instance, option chains - is normally not free. It can be purchased from data vendors; we also provide M1 price data and EOD options data for US stocks and ETFs in the Zorro data format. Other vendors specialize on certain data types or exchanges - for instance, iVolatility™ on options and futures, Nanotick™ on Chicago traded assets, or Nanex™ on New York traded assets. Most have data in CSV format that can be convert to Zorro's data formats using the dataParse function with a special format string. Examples for conversion scripts can be found in the Strategy folder.
Bars, candles, ticks, or quotes are often confused, and the meanings of those terms can also vary from platform to platform. Throughout this manual the following terms are used:
Asset - the traded financial product. Multiple synonyms are used in the trading literature, such as Instrument, Ticker, Symbol, Issue, Market, or Security.
Quote - online offer by a market participant to sell or buy an asset at a certain price. The most recent price quote is the current bid or ask price of an asset. Sometimes other methods are used to define the current price, for instance the best recent quote or the last traded price.
Tick - a price in combination with a time stamp. In live trading, a tick is generated by an incoming new price quote. In historical data files, a tick is a price sample with its associated time. If a tick is sampled together from several quotes, as in most historical data files, its time stamp is the time of its most recent quote.
Candle - price info covering a time interval with an open, close, high, and low price. T1 data contains only a single price quote per tick, so its open, close, high and low is the same price. Price ticks in historical files are usually candles with the first, last, highest, and lowest price of all quotes they are sampled from. Forex, CFD, or cryptocurrency candles from different brokers often differ strongly.
Bar - basic time interval. The bar period determines the width of a candle, the time resolution of the price curve, and the execution interval of a trading strategy. The time scale on a chart is divided into bars that cover at least one tick, but normally many ticks. The bar time can vary from bar to bar when special bar types, such as Range, Renko, or Point-and-Figure bars, are used, or when bars are extended due to weekends, holidays, or market closure.
Intrabar - inside a bar. Simulating intrabar events in test/train mode requires the TICKS flag. The tick or tock functions or trade management functions can run at any time inside a bar.
Time frame - basic time unit of algorithms and indicators in a trading strategy. It is often identical to a bar, but can also cover multiple bars in multi-timeframe strategies. A time frame can be synchronized to a full hour, day, or week. In that case the number of bars per time frame can vary.
► atest version online